Pinaceae Pinus edulis Engelm.

Twoneedle Pinyon

Navajo - Dye, Black

Use documented by:
Elmore, Francis H., 1944, Ethnobotany of the Navajo, Sante Fe, NM. School of American Research, page 21

View all documented uses for Pinus edulis Engelm.

Scientific name: Pinus edulis Engelm.
USDA symbol: PIED (View details at USDA PLANTS site)
Common names: Twoneedle Pinyon
Family: Pinaceae
Family (APG): Pinaceae
Native American Tribe: Navajo
Use category: Dye
Use sub-category: Black
Notes: Gum used to make black dye. A black dye was made from pinyon gum, the leaves and twigs of sumac and a native yellow ocher. The sumac leaves were put in water and allowed to boil until the mixture became strong. While this was boiling, the ocher was powdered and roasted. Pinyon gum was then added to the ocher and the whole roasted again. As roasting proceeded, the gum melted and finally the mixture was reduced to a black powder. This was cooled and thrown into the sumac mixture, forming a rich blue-black fluid which was essentially an ink. When this process was finished the wool was put in and allowed to boil until it was dyed the right shade. This same dye was also used to color leather and buckskin.

RECRD: 2616 id: 27607